Куда я попал?
SECURITM это SGRC система, ? автоматизирующая процессы в службах информационной безопасности. SECURITM помогает построить и управлять ИСПДн, КИИ, ГИС, СМИБ/СУИБ, банковскими системами защиты.
А еще SECURITM это место для обмена опытом и наработками для служб безопасности.

Hijack Execution Flow:  Переменная окружения LD_PRELOAD

Adversaries may execute their own malicious payloads by hijacking environment variables the dynamic linker uses to load shared libraries. During the execution preparation phase of a program, the dynamic linker loads specified absolute paths of shared libraries from environment variables and files, such as LD_PRELOAD on Linux or DYLD_INSERT_LIBRARIES on macOS. Libraries specified in environment variables are loaded first, taking precedence over system libraries with the same function name.(Citation: Man LD.SO)(Citation: TLDP Shared Libraries)(Citation: Apple Doco Archive Dynamic Libraries) These variables are often used by developers to debug binaries without needing to recompile, deconflict mapped symbols, and implement custom functions without changing the original library.(Citation: Baeldung LD_PRELOAD) On Linux and macOS, hijacking dynamic linker variables may grant access to the victim process's memory, system/network resources, and possibly elevated privileges. This method may also evade detection from security products since the execution is masked under a legitimate process. Adversaries can set environment variables via the command line using the export command, setenv function, or putenv function. Adversaries can also leverage Dynamic Linker Hijacking to export variables in a shell or set variables programmatically using higher level syntax such Python’s os.environ. On Linux, adversaries may set LD_PRELOAD to point to malicious libraries that match the name of legitimate libraries which are requested by a victim program, causing the operating system to load the adversary's malicious code upon execution of the victim program. LD_PRELOAD can be set via the environment variable or /etc/ld.so.preload file.(Citation: Man LD.SO)(Citation: TLDP Shared Libraries) Libraries specified by LD_PRELOAD are loaded and mapped into memory by dlopen() and mmap() respectively.(Citation: Code Injection on Linux and macOS)(Citation: Uninformed Needle) (Citation: Phrack halfdead 1997)(Citation: Brown Exploiting Linkers) On macOS this behavior is conceptually the same as on Linux, differing only in how the macOS dynamic libraries (dyld) is implemented at a lower level. Adversaries can set the DYLD_INSERT_LIBRARIES environment variable to point to malicious libraries containing names of legitimate libraries or functions requested by a victim program.(Citation: TheEvilBit DYLD_INSERT_LIBRARIES)(Citation: Timac DYLD_INSERT_LIBRARIES)(Citation: Gabilondo DYLD_INSERT_LIBRARIES Catalina Bypass)

ID: T1574.006
Относится к технике:  T1574
Тактика(-и): Defense Evasion, Persistence, Privilege Escalation
Платформы: Linux, macOS
Требуемые разрешения: User
Источники данных: Command: Command Execution, File: File Creation, File: File Modification, Module: Module Load, Process: Process Creation
Версия: 2.0
Дата создания: 13 Mar 2020
Последнее изменение: 27 Apr 2021

Примеры процедур

Название Описание

Rocke has modified /etc/ld.so.preload to hook libc functions in order to hide the installed dropper and mining software in process lists.(Citation: Anomali Rocke March 2019)


Hildegard has modified /etc/ld.so.preload to intercept shared library import functions.(Citation: Unit 42 Hildegard Malware)


HiddenWasp adds itself as a shared object to the LD_PRELOAD environment variable.(Citation: Intezer HiddenWasp Map 2019)


XCSSET adds malicious file paths to the DYLD_FRAMEWORK_PATH and DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variables to execute malicious code.(Citation: trendmicro xcsset xcode project 2020)


APT41 has configured payloads to load via LD_PRELOAD.(Citation: Crowdstrike GTR2020 Mar 2020)


Ebury has injected its dynamic library into descendent processes of sshd via LD_PRELOAD.(Citation: ESET Ebury Oct 2017)


Контрмера Описание
Operating System Configuration

Make configuration changes related to the operating system or a common feature of the operating system that result in system hardening against techniques.

Execution Prevention

Block execution of code on a system through application control, and/or script blocking.


Monitor for changes to environment variables and files associated with loading shared libraries such as LD_PRELOAD and DYLD_INSERT_LIBRARIES, as well as the commands to implement these changes. Monitor processes for unusual activity (e.g., a process that does not use the network begins to do so). Track library metadata, such as a hash, and compare libraries that are loaded at process execution time against previous executions to detect differences that do not correlate with patching or updates.


  1. Jon Gabilondo. (2019, September 22). How to Inject Code into Mach-O Apps. Part II.. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
  2. Timac. (2012, December 18). Simple code injection using DYLD_INSERT_LIBRARIES. Retrieved March 26, 2020.
  3. Fitzl, C. (2019, July 9). DYLD_INSERT_LIBRARIES DYLIB injection in macOS / OSX. Retrieved March 26, 2020.
  4. Tim Brown. (2011, June 29). Breaking the links: Exploiting the linker. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
  5. halflife. (1997, September 1). Shared Library Redirection Techniques. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
  6. skape. (2003, January 19). Linux x86 run-time process manipulation. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
  7. Itamar Turner-Trauring. (2017, April 18). “This will only hurt for a moment”: code injection on Linux and macOS with LD_PRELOAD. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
  8. baeldung. (2020, August 9). What Is the LD_PRELOAD Trick?. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
  9. Apple Inc.. (2012, July 23). Overview of Dynamic Libraries. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
  10. The Linux Documentation Project. (n.d.). Shared Libraries. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  11. Kerrisk, M. (2020, June 13). Linux Programmer's Manual. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  12. Vachon, F. (2017, October 30). Windigo Still not Windigone: An Ebury Update . Retrieved February 10, 2021.
  13. Mac Threat Response, Mobile Research Team. (2020, August 13). The XCSSET Malware: Inserts Malicious Code Into Xcode Projects, Performs UXSS Backdoor Planting in Safari, and Leverages Two Zero-day Exploits. Retrieved October 5, 2021.
  14. Chen, J. et al. (2021, February 3). Hildegard: New TeamTNT Cryptojacking Malware Targeting Kubernetes. Retrieved April 5, 2021.
  15. Anomali Labs. (2019, March 15). Rocke Evolves Its Arsenal With a New Malware Family Written in Golang. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
  16. Sanmillan, I. (2019, May 29). HiddenWasp Malware Stings Targeted Linux Systems. Retrieved June 24, 2019.
  17. Crowdstrike. (2020, March 2). 2020 Global Threat Report. Retrieved December 11, 2020.
  18. Apple Inc.. (2021, January 1). Hardened Runtime: Manage security protections and resource access for your macOS apps.. Retrieved March 24, 2021.