Куда я попал?
SECURITM это SGRC система, ? автоматизирующая процессы в службах информационной безопасности. SECURITM помогает построить и управлять ИСПДн, КИИ, ГИС, СМИБ/СУИБ, банковскими системами защиты.
А еще SECURITM это место для обмена опытом и наработками для служб безопасности.

Adversary-in-the-Middle:  Подмена LLMNR/NBT-NS-ответа и ретрансляция SMB

By responding to LLMNR/NBT-NS network traffic, adversaries may spoof an authoritative source for name resolution to force communication with an adversary controlled system. This activity may be used to collect or relay authentication materials. Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR) and NetBIOS Name Service (NBT-NS) are Microsoft Windows components that serve as alternate methods of host identification. LLMNR is based upon the Domain Name System (DNS) format and allows hosts on the same local link to perform name resolution for other hosts. NBT-NS identifies systems on a local network by their NetBIOS name. (Citation: Wikipedia LLMNR)(Citation: TechNet NetBIOS) Adversaries can spoof an authoritative source for name resolution on a victim network by responding to LLMNR (UDP 5355)/NBT-NS (UDP 137) traffic as if they know the identity of the requested host, effectively poisoning the service so that the victims will communicate with the adversary controlled system. If the requested host belongs to a resource that requires identification/authentication, the username and NTLMv2 hash will then be sent to the adversary controlled system. The adversary can then collect the hash information sent over the wire through tools that monitor the ports for traffic or through Network Sniffing and crack the hashes offline through Brute Force to obtain the plaintext passwords. In some cases where an adversary has access to a system that is in the authentication path between systems or when automated scans that use credentials attempt to authenticate to an adversary controlled system, the NTLMv1/v2 hashes can be intercepted and relayed to access and execute code against a target system. The relay step can happen in conjunction with poisoning but may also be independent of it.(Citation: byt3bl33d3r NTLM Relaying)(Citation: Secure Ideas SMB Relay) Additionally, adversaries may encapsulate the NTLMv1/v2 hashes into various protocols, such as LDAP, SMB, MSSQL and HTTP, to expand and use multiple services with the valid NTLM response.  Several tools may be used to poison name services within local networks such as NBNSpoof, Metasploit, and Responder.(Citation: GitHub NBNSpoof)(Citation: Rapid7 LLMNR Spoofer)(Citation: GitHub Responder)

ID: T1557.001
Относится к технике:  T1557
Тактика(-и): Collection, Credential Access
Платформы: Windows
Источники данных: Network Traffic: Network Traffic Content, Network Traffic: Network Traffic Flow, Service: Service Creation, Windows Registry: Windows Registry Key Modification
Версия: 1.4
Дата создания: 11 Feb 2020
Последнее изменение: 25 Oct 2022

Примеры процедур

Название Описание

Impacket modules like ntlmrelayx and smbrelayx can be used in conjunction with Network Sniffing and LLMNR/NBT-NS Poisoning and SMB Relay to gather NetNTLM credentials for Brute Force or relay attacks that can gain code execution.(Citation: Impacket Tools)


Empire can use Inveigh to conduct name service poisoning for credential theft and associated relay attacks.(Citation: Github PowerShell Empire)(Citation: GitHub Inveigh)


PoshC2 can use Inveigh to conduct name service poisoning for credential theft and associated relay attacks.(Citation: GitHub PoshC2)

Lazarus Group

Lazarus Group executed Responder using the command [Responder file path] -i [IP address] -rPv on a compromised host to harvest credentials and move laterally.(Citation: Kaspersky ThreatNeedle Feb 2021)

Wizard Spider

Wizard Spider has used the Invoke-Inveigh PowerShell cmdlets, likely for name service poisoning.(Citation: FireEye KEGTAP SINGLEMALT October 2020)


Pupy can sniff plaintext network credentials and use NBNS Spoofing to poison name services.(Citation: GitHub Pupy)


Responder is used to poison name services to gather hashes and credentials from systems within a local network.(Citation: GitHub Responder)


Контрмера Описание
Disable or Remove Feature or Program

Remove or deny access to unnecessary and potentially vulnerable software to prevent abuse by adversaries.

Network Intrusion Prevention

Use intrusion detection signatures to block traffic at network boundaries.

Network Segmentation

Architect sections of the network to isolate critical systems, functions, or resources. Use physical and logical segmentation to prevent access to potentially sensitive systems and information. Use a DMZ to contain any internet-facing services that should not be exposed from the internal network. Configure separate virtual private cloud (VPC) instances to isolate critical cloud systems.

Filter Network Traffic

Use network appliances to filter ingress or egress traffic and perform protocol-based filtering. Configure software on endpoints to filter network traffic.


Monitor HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows NT\DNSClient for changes to the "EnableMulticast" DWORD value. A value of “0” indicates LLMNR is disabled. (Citation: Sternsecurity LLMNR-NBTNS) Monitor for traffic on ports UDP 5355 and UDP 137 if LLMNR/NetBIOS is disabled by security policy. Deploy an LLMNR/NBT-NS spoofing detection tool.(Citation: GitHub Conveigh) Monitoring of Windows event logs for event IDs 4697 and 7045 may help in detecting successful relay techniques.(Citation: Secure Ideas SMB Relay)


  1. Wikipedia. (2016, July 7). Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
  2. Sternstein, J. (2013, November). Local Network Attacks: LLMNR and NBT-NS Poisoning. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
  3. Salvati, M. (2017, June 2). Practical guide to NTLM Relaying in 2017 (A.K.A getting a foothold in under 5 minutes). Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  4. Robertson, K. (2016, August 28). Conveigh. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
  5. Nomex. (2014, February 7). NBNSpoof. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
  6. Microsoft. (n.d.). NetBIOS Name Resolution. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
  7. Kuehn, E. (2018, April 11). Ever Run a Relay? Why SMB Relays Should Be On Your Mind. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  8. Gaffie, L. (2016, August 25). Responder. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
  9. Francois, R. (n.d.). LLMNR Spoofer. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
  10. Kimberly Goody, Jeremy Kennelly, Joshua Shilko, Steve Elovitz, Douglas Bienstock. (2020, October 28). Unhappy Hour Special: KEGTAP and SINGLEMALT With a Ransomware Chaser. Retrieved October 28, 2020.
  11. Robertson, K. (2015, April 2). Inveigh: Windows PowerShell ADIDNS/LLMNR/mDNS/NBNS spoofer/man-in-the-middle tool. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  12. Schroeder, W., Warner, J., Nelson, M. (n.d.). Github PowerShellEmpire. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
  13. Nettitude. (2018, July 23). Python Server for PoshC2. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  14. SecureAuth. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  15. Metcalf, S. (2016, October 21). Securing Windows Workstations: Developing a Secure Baseline. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
  16. Vyacheslav Kopeytsev and Seongsu Park. (2021, February 25). Lazarus targets defense industry with ThreatNeedle. Retrieved October 27, 2021.
  17. Microsoft. (2008, September 10). Using SMB Packet Signing. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  18. Nicolas Verdier. (n.d.). Retrieved January 29, 2018.

Связанные риски


УБИ.069 Угроза неправомерных действий в каналах связи
Угроза заключается в возможности внесения нарушителем изменений в работу сетевых протоколов путём добавления или удаления данных...
УБИ.116 Угроза перехвата данных, передаваемых по вычислительной сети
Угроза заключается в возможности осуществления нарушителем несанкционированного доступа к сетевому трафику дискредитируемой вычи...
УБИ.181 Угроза перехвата одноразовых паролей в режиме реального времени
Угроза заключается в возможности получения нарушителем управления критическими операциями пользователя путём перехвата одноразов...

Мы используем cookie-файлы, чтобы получить статистику, которая помогает нам улучшить сервис для вас с целью персонализации сервисов и предложений. Вы может прочитать подробнее о cookie-файлах или изменить настройки браузера. Продолжая пользоваться сайтом, вы даёте согласие на использование ваших cookie-файлов и соглашаетесь с Политикой обработки персональных данных.